the pharaoh had power because, as 'Lord of the Two Lands' the pharaoh was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt. He owned all of the land, made laws, collected taxes, and defended Egypt against foreigners. As 'High Priest of Every Temple', the pharaoh represented the gods on Earth. He performed rituals and built temples to honour the gods
Peasants made up most of the population but, they were at the bottom level. The peasants were the largest social class and were the workers that were the farmers and construction workers.
Pharaoh had power but needed help to complete his work so he used the Craftsmen and merchants. He also used the farmers and unskilled workers.